A government is the set of legal institutions and people that make laws and govern a country, state, city, or local community. This massive system can encompass a wide variety of leaders and institutions, including a president or prime minister, a legislature or parliament, courts, a civil service, and armed forces.
Governments have a number of roles in society, and some governments have more of an influence than others. In the United States, we have a three-branch federal government consisting of an executive branch that makes decisions and oversees programs, a legislative branch that makes laws, and a judicial branch that interprets those laws.
The executive branch is led by the President, who is elected by the citizens of the United States and serves as the commander in chief of the armed forces. The President is also responsible for nominating and appointing federal officials, as well as signing executive orders. If the President vetoes a bill, Congress can overturn his veto by passing the bill again in each house with a two-thirds majority vote.
Legislation is the main responsibility of the United States Congress, which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Each state has two senators and 435 members of the House, who are all elected by the residents of their state. During the legislative process, bills are often amended and changed before they become law.
In addition to the President and Congress, other major government agencies include a number of independent agencies. These are often non-profits or government-owned corporations, such as the US Postal Service, NASA, and the Central Intelligence Agency.
Most American governments have a three-branch structure, which means that there are separate branches of the government, and those branches have different powers and responsibilities. This structure is not a uniquely American feature, however, and many other governments have similar structures.
Regardless of the government type, there are some basic principles that every government should follow. These include:
“Mutual Tolerance” and “Forbearance”
These principles encourage a government to use its resources in ways that benefit everyone rather than only special interests. They also help keep the costs of government action lower, so that more money can be spent on other important things in society.
Another important principle is to avoid the use of force by government, which can reduce overall wealth. The use of force to redistribute resources is a natural function of government, but it may not be necessary in all cases.
This is because governments can sometimes create incentives to allocate resources more equitably, by using taxation or other means to increase income equality. In addition, governments can promote social justice by providing public goods that help all members of society.
A common way that governments facilitate wealth-producing voluntary exchange is by establishing and enforcing the rule of law that secures property rights. This promotes economic development and increases the standard of living of a nation’s inhabitants.
Among Americans, a strong majority (nearly six in ten) say that government should do more to solve problems. Compared to those who think that government should do less, this share of those who think that the government should do more has increased slightly over the past year.